Structure of Electric Motors

Structure of Electric Motors


    Electric motors are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. The electric motor structure generally consists of two basic components: a rotor (rotating part) and a stator (stationary part). The rotor provides motion by rotating in a magnetic field and is usually located on a shaft. The stator consists of magnetic coils surrounding the rotor and creating a magnetic field. Electrical energy is provided by a three-phase alternating current applied to the stator coils. This current rotates the rotor by creating a magnetic field. Electric motors can be of different types and have different features according to their intended use. Motors are designed according to factors such as efficiency, power, and speed control. They are also supported by additional components such as bearing systems, cooling mechanisms, and protective coatings. The structure of electric motors is based on the principle of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy and is widely used in many areas such as industrial, household appliances, and vehicles.

    What is the Structure of Electric Motor?

    Although electric motors have many different types and designs, their basic structure is similar. The structure of a typical electric motor usually consists of a rotor, a stator, and a commutator. The rotor is in the form of a shaft equipped with magnets or electromagnets with a magnetic field. The stator contains permanent magnetic fields placed around the rotor and usually consists of coils. When an electric current is applied to the coils of the stator, the magnetic fields interact and the rotor begins to rotate. The commutator is a device that directs the movement of the rotor and ensures that it rotates in the right direction. In this way, electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and can be used in applications ranging from household appliances to industrial machinery.

    What are the Electric Motor Features?

    Electric motors have many features. First of all, their efficiency is high, that is, their rate of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy is quite good. It also provides speed adjustability, that is, they can be operated at different speeds. Electric motors require little maintenance and have a long service life. They also have fast response capabilities, providing fast start and stop functions. Motor power can be varied according to different needs and they generally run quietly. They are considered environmentally friendly as they produce no waste gas or emissions. Electric motors are a preferred option in terms of energy efficiency, flexibility, and various application areas.

    End Connection Box in Electric Motors

    In electric motors, the end connection box is a component where the electrical connections of the motor are made and protected. The end connection box, which is usually placed on the front upper part of the motor, is designed with IP 65 protection degrees and provides resistance against water, dust, and external influences. The box is positioned 180° rotatable for easy entry of the mains cable. The terminal junction box is manufactured from reinforced Polyamide or corrosion-resistant die-cast aluminum alloy. The box contains terminals connected to the coils and an earthing screw. In this way, the connections of the motor are made securely and maintenance and repair can be carried out easily. The terminal junction box is an important component that ensures the safe operation of electric motors and the regularity of their connections.

    Cable Entry in Electric Motors

    In electric motors, the cable entry is usually located on the end connection box or motor housing. The cable entry is realized using glands manufactured by EN 60423 and DIN EN 50 262 or optionally using ethane glands with protection class IP 68. This ensures the correct and safe connection of the main cable inside or outside the motor. Various cable entry options are available for different motor designs and sizes.

    Bearings in Electric Motors

    In electric motors, bearings are important components used to provide rotational movement between the rotor and stator and to support mechanical loads. Bearings, usually applied in the form of rolling bearings, consist of outer and inner rings and provide rotational movement through balls or rollers. In this way, the motor can rotate at high speeds with low friction, reducing vibration and preventing wear. Depending on the design and intended use of the electric motor, different types of bearings are used. GAMAK electric motors generally use high-quality, noise-controlled deep groove ball bearings (DIN 625) or cylindrical roller bearings (DIN 5412). The correct selection and regular maintenance of the bearings ensure the efficient and safe operation of the motor.

    Click here to use the GAMAK electric motor selection tool to select the right electric motor for your needs.

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